Category: CALCULATION

Determine the most recent status after satisfying certain conditions

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Assume a three column dataset with Patient ID, Smoking Status and Review Date

PatientID SmokingStatus ReviewDate
P1 10-03-2018
P1 9 09-03-2018
P1 1 08-03-2018
P1 4 07-03-2018
P2 9 10-03-2018
P2 9 09-03-2018
P2 9 08-03-2018
P2 9 07-03-2018
P3 2 10-03-2018
P3 09-03-2018
P3 9 08-03-2018
P4 9 10-03-2018
P4 1 09-03-2018
P4 4 08-03-2018

The objective is the create another 3 column dataset with the following conditions:

  1. If the patient's latest smoking status is other than Blank or 9, then consider that as the smoking status of the patient; and
  2. If the patient's latest smoking status is blank or 9, then consider the previous smoking status that is not blank or 9; and
  3. If the patient's smoking status is blank or 9 on all dates, then consider the smoking status as 9

The expected result is:

PatientID Last date when the smoking status was other than 9 or Blank Smoking status on that date
P1 08-Mar-18 1
P2 10-Mar-18 9
P3 10-Mar-18 2
P4 09-Mar-18 1

I have solved this question using 3 methods - PowerPivot, Advanced Filters and formulas.  You may download my solution workbook from here.

Combine unique entries from a range of cells after satisfying a condition

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Here is a simple three column dataset showing Item ID, Catalogue Name and Catalogue Year

Item ID Catalogue Name Catalogue Year
A Spring 2012
A Spring 2016
A Spring 2017
B Fall 2014
B Fall 2014
B Fall 2016

The second and third last rows are clear duplicate rows. The task is to create a fourth column (titled as All Year) in this dataset with concatenated entries from the Catalogue Year column for each Item ID. So the expected result is:

Item ID Catalogue Name Catalogue Year All Year
A Spring 2012 2012, 2016, 2017
A Spring 2016 2012, 2016, 2017
A Spring 2017 2012, 2016, 2017
B Fall 2014 2014, 2016
B Fall 2014 2014, 2016
B Fall 2016 2014, 2016

Notice that for Item ID B, the result in every cell of the fourth column is 2014, 2016 and not 2014,2014,2016.  So while joining (concatenating in technical MS Excel terminology) entries from the "Catalogues Year" column in the "All Year" column, only unique entries for that Item ID have to be considered.

Excel 2016 has a TEXTJOIN() function which gets use close to the final result but does not take into account the unique entries only (it takes all entries into account all entries).  On using the TEXTJOIN() array formula in a spare column, here is the result i got:

Item ID Catalogue Name Catalogue Year All Year
A Spring 2012 2012, 2016, 2017
A Spring 2016 2012, 2016, 2017
A Spring 2017 2012, 2016, 2017
B Fall 2014 2014, 2014, 2016
B Fall 2014 2014, 2014, 2016
B Fall 2016 2014, 2014, 2016

Notice that for Item ID B, the result is 2014, 2014, 2017 and not 2014, 2017.  So the TEXTJOIN() function does not work.

I have solved this problem using Power Query (Get and Transform in Excel 2016).  You may download my solution workbook from here.

Prepare an invigilation schedule for each teacher by different time periods

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Imagine a multi column exam invigilation schedule with the following information

  1. S. No.
  2. Name of staff
  3. Designation of staff member
  4. Two columns for each day on which there is an exam - one for Morning and another for Afternoon
  5. A * under each column if that particular staff member has to be an invigilator during that time period
S. No. Name of staff Designation 09/11/2017-Morning 09/11/2017-Afternoon 10/11/2017-Morning 10/11/2017-Afternoon
1 Tom Lecturer * * *
2 Sam Lecturer * *

This dataset stretches into many more columns.  So if the exams last for 15 days, there will be 30 columns.  The objective is to condense the column expanding dataset into a 5 column one - S. No., Name of Staff, Designation, Morning and Evening.  Under the Morning and Evening columns, the different dates have to be separated by commas in that one single cell.  The expected result is:

Name of staff S. No. Designation Morning Afternoon
Tom 1 Lecturer 09/11/2017, 10/11/2017, 11/11/2017, 13/11/2017, 14/11/2017, 16/11/2017, 17/11/2017 10/11/2017, 13/11/2017, 14/11/2017, 15/11/2017, 16/11/2017, 17/11/2017
Sam 2 Lecturer 09/11/2017, 13/11/2017, 15/11/2017, 16/11/2017 09/11/2017

I can think of 3 ways to solve this problem. Here's a brief about each of those methods:

  1. Using Power Query and Excel's functions - Using Power Query, one can first unpivot the data and then use the TEXTJOIN() function.  This would be an array formula.
  2. Using Power Query only - Using Power Query, one can first unpivot the data and then modify the code to concatenate all dates in a single cell for that invigilator.  One can then Pivot the data in Power Query itself
  3. Using Power Query and PowerPivot - Using Power Query, one can first unpivot the data and then use the CONCATENATEX() function of the PowerPivot.

As you can observe, the common thread in all solutions is that one has to first unpivot the dataset.

You may refer to all my 3 solutions in this workbook.

Return the specific product which satisfies the user defined feature combination

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Here is a simple matrix like data layout which shows the features available in every product.  Let's assume that this data is in range A2:E8 (including the header row)

Functions Product A Product B Product C Product D
Function 1 x
Function 2 x x
Function 3 x x x
Function 4 x x
Function 5 x x
Function 6 x

Here is a user created input table of his/her requirements.  Let's assume that this data is in range A12:B18 (including the header row)

Functions Input
Function 1
Function 2 x
Function 3 x
Function 4
Function 5 x
Function 6

The expected result is the "Product" which meets the user defined function combinations. The result should be Product B. If there are different products which meet the user's requirements, only the first one will be returned as a result. If one would like all products to be returned, the one can use Power Query to resolve this problem.

=IFERROR(INDEX($B$2:$E$2,1,MATCH(COUNTA($A$13:$A$18),MMULT(1*(TRANSPOSE(B3:E8=B13:B18)),1*(ISNUMBER(ROW(INDIRECT("1:"&COUNTA($A$3:$A$8)))))),0)),"No such product")

Please note that this is an array formula so please confirm the formula with Ctrl+Shift+Enter.

Determine cumulative interest payable on an annuity with varying time periods

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Imagine a fixed monthly amount due to an Organisation for services rendered to various customers.  While an invoice is raised every month by this Organisation, not all pay up the dues on time.  For unpaid dues, the Organisation charges its client interest ranging from 3% to 9% per annum.  The objective is to determine cumulative interest payable by various customers to Organisation X.

The base data looks like this

Client Monthly revenue Int. calculation start date Int. calculation end date Interest rate
Client A 33,967 01-Aug-16 25-Jul-17 9.00%
Client B 123 12-Sep-16 30-Nov-17 4.00%

Given the dataset above, the total interest payable by Client A is Rs. 16,237.20.  The calculation is shown below:

From To Days for which interest should be paid Principal Interest
02-Aug-16 31-Aug-16 328.00 33,967.00 2,745.26
01-Sep-16 30-Sep-16 298.00 33,967.00 2,494.17
01-Oct-16 31-Oct-16 267.00 33,967.00 2,234.71
01-Nov-16 30-Nov-16 237.00 33,967.00 1,983.62
01-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 206.00 33,967.00 1,724.16
01-Jan-17 31-Jan-17 175.00 33,967.00 1,464.70
01-Feb-17 28-Feb-17 147.00 33,967.00 1,230.34
01-Mar-17 31-Mar-17 116.00 33,967.00 970.88
01-Apr-17 30-Apr-17 86.00 33,967.00 719.79
01-May-17 31-May-17 55.00 33,967.00 460.33
01-Jun-17 30-Jun-17 25.00 33,967.00 209.24
01-Jul-17 25-Jul-17 - 33,967.00 -
Total       16,237.20

You may download my solution workbook with from here. I have solved this problem using normal Excel formulas and the PowerPivot.

Determine number of learners who have completed different stages of multiple online courses

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Here is a sample dataset of learners who have cleared different stages of multiple courses on offer within an Organisation:

Learner Stage completed Course
Bill Stage 1 Public Speaking
Bill Stage 2 Public Speaking
Bill Stage 3 Public Speaking
Susan Stage 1 Effective Communication
Bob Stage 1 Public Speaking
Bob Stage 2 Public Speaking
Sheila Stage 1 Effective Communication
Sheila Stage 2 Effective Communication
Sheila Stage 3 Effective Communication
Frank Stage 1 Effective Communication
Frank Stage 2 Effective Communication
Henry Stage 1 Public Speaking
Henry Stage 2 Public Speaking
Bill Stage 1 Effective Communication
Bill Stage 2 Effective Communication

From this sample dataset, one may want to know how many participants have completed each stage of these multiple courses.  The expected result is shown below:

Row Labels Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
Effective Communication 1 2 1
Public Speaking 2 1
Grand Total 1 3 2

In this workbook, I have shared 2 solutions - one using formulas and the other using the Power Query & PowerPivot.

Return best possible fit, to manually entered dimensions, with the intent to minimise wastage

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Refer to a simple 5 column representative inventory dataset of a Glass manufacturer:

Model Length (MM) Wide (MM) Thk (MM) CAT
HX9-G-ARD 1071 273 3.5 A
MYP-G-3RD 580 535 3.2 B
EPO-G-3RD 580 535 3.2 A
MYG-G-3R 966 350 3.2 A
MYN-G-3RD 649 530 3.2 A
GM SPIN-G-3FD 882 395 3.2 A
MY8-G-AR 880 400 3.5 B
GM2-G-AR 880 400 3.5 A

From this inventory data, one has to furnish customer orders based on specific dimensions demanded by them.  A typical Customer request would be to supply glass sheets as per the following dimensions

Length (MM) Wide (MM) Thk (MM) CAT
780 542 3.5 A

The firm may or may not have glass sheets of this specific size.  The objective is to identify glass sheets, from the inventory on hand, which match customer specifications.  If there is no exact match, then one must be able to obtain all inventory items which have the same Thk (MM) and CAT as the customer specified dimensions but the Length and thickness should be more than equal to the customer specified dimensions.  The length and width can then be trimmed to match the exact customer dimensions.  Furthermore, the result returned should:

  1. List only the Top 30 glass sheets available in inventory; and
  2. List those Top 30 glass sheets in ascending order of wastage (wastage caused when the glass sheet is trimmed to match the customer specified dimensions)

You may refer to my solution in this workbook.  I have shared two solutions - one using Excel formulas and the other using Power Query a.k.a. Get and Transform in Excel 2016.  Please read the Comments in cells F1, J9 and J16 of the "Solutions" worksheet.  The difference between the 2 solutions is:

  1. Formula driven solution - This is in range J10:AM14 of the Solutions worksheet.  This is a semi dynamic solution (as compared to the Power Query solution).  To get the models in ascending order of wastage, one will have to create an Area column in the base data and sort that column in ascending order.
  2. Power Query solution - This is in range J17:AM21 of the Solutions worksheet.  This is a dynamic solution.  Just change the customer specified dimensions in range G2:J2 of the Data and Query worksheet.  Thereafter just right click on any cell in the range below and select refresh.

Sum the largest 5 of the last 10 numbers in a row ignoring blanks

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Assume a single row of data with numbers and blanks appearing at random intervals.  The objective is to sum the largest 5 of last 10 numbers in that row.  Solving this problem entails multiple steps:

  1. Identify the last 10 numbers in that row i.e. starting from the right hand side, identify the last 10 numbers
  2. Identify the largest 5 of those 10 numbers
  3. Sum those largest 5 numbers

Here are the steps

  1. Suppose the numbers and blanks are in range A2:V2
  2. Type 10 in cell X1
  3. Enter this array formula (Ctrl+Shift+Enter) in cell X2

=SUM(SMALL(IF((SUBTOTAL(2,OFFSET(V2,,,1,(COLUMN($A2:$V2)-COLUMN(W2))))<=X$1)*($A2:$V2)=0,FALSE,(SUBTOTAL(2,OFFSET(V2,,,1,(COLUMN($A2:$V2)-COLUMN(W2))))<=X$1)*($A2:$V2)),{1,2,3,4,5}))

Convert a text entry into its number equivalent

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Consider this simple two column table showing text entries in column A and the corresponding numbers in column.  Assume this data is in range A2:B11 (headings are in A1:B1).

text Value
A 1
B 2
C 3
D 4
E 5
F 6
G 7
H 8
I 9
J 0

The objective is to generate the numeric code for text code of any length entered in a certain cell.  For example, a user will type a certain text code, say ABEJ and the expected result should be 1250.  For JABF, the result should be 0126.  The text entry and text length are both user determined.

With ABEJ, typed in cell D2, enter this array formula in cell E2

=TEXT(SUMPRODUCT((LOOKUP(MID(D2,ROW(INDIRECT("1:"&LEN(D2))),1),$A$2:$A$11,$B$2:$B$11))*((10^(LEN(D2)-1-(ROW(INDIRECT("1:"&LEN(D2)))-1))))),REPT("0",LEN(D2)))

This formula can now be copied down for generating the numeric code for all text codes entered in column D.

Compute an average for the same day in the past 3 years

{4 Comments}

Assume a simple two column dataset with dates in column A and numbers in column B. The dates in column A are from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2016 and numbers in column B are for the period January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015 (there are no numbers for January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016).

The objective is to "Compute an average for each day of calendar year 2016. The average should be for the occurrence of that day in the previous 3 years". Here's an example:

1. January 1, 2016 was a Friday (the first Friday of 2016) and is in cell A1097
2. In cell B1097, the average should be computed as: Average of the "First Friday of each of the previous 3 years"
3. January 8, 2016 was a Friday (the second Friday of 2016) and is in cell A1104
4. In cell B1104, the average should be computed as: Average of the "Second Friday of each of the previous 3 years"

I have solved this problem with the help of the PowerPivot. You may refer to my solution in this workbook.